Midterm Review Sheet: Advanced Concepts of Personal Training

Carlos Estevez

Mid-Term corrections

Energy Systems: What are they, how are they are defined, what constitutes full recovery for each system?)

Types of Muscle Fibers. 🡪 Type 1 Type 2A Type 2B/X
Nerve and Power Characteristics Fatigue Rate: Resistance

Color: Red

Power output: Low

Activity: Aerobic (long term)

Duration of contractions: Long

Diameter: Small

Twitch: Slow

Fatigue Rate: Resistance

Color: Between Red and White

Power output: Intermediate

Activity: Aerobic (short term)

Duration of contractions: Short

Diameter: Medium/Intermediate

Twitch: Fast

Fatigue Rate: Fast

Color: White

Power output: High

Activity: Anaerobic (short term)

Duration of contractions: Short

Diameter: Large

Twitch: Fast

Metabolic characteristics Oxidative Capacity: High

Glycolytic Capacity: Low

Mitochondrial Density: High

Capillary Density: High

Storage/Fuel: Triglycerides

Oxidative Capacity: Medium/High

Glycolytic Capacity: High

Mitochondrial Density: Moderate

Capillary Density: Intermediate

Storage/Fuel: Glycogen

Oxidative Capacity: Low

Glycolytic Capacity: High

Mitochondrial Density: Low

Capillary Density: Low

Storage/Fuel: Glycogen


Immediate System

This system contains ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate) and CP (Creatine Phosphate) as its fuel source. ATP is depleted when ATP splits into ADP and inorganic phosphate creating that energy needed for the muscle contraction or reaction. CP is used when all the ATP has been depleted. CP has 4-6x concentration in the cell so; the molecule is bigger and can only be stored in lower amounts compared to ATP CP reacts with ADP to create more ATP. Type 2X muscle fibers are being used. Anaerobic workouts can be used.

ATP cycle: work can be done from 1-3 seconds; rest usually takes up 90 seconds so the atp can be resynthesize. Examples of exercises; Vertical jump, swinging the driver in golf.

CP cycle: When there’s no more ATP to continue the ATP cycle cp comes in as a buffer to help create more ATP by giving its phosphate ion to ADP to create more ATP.

Work can be done from 5-15 seconds and the recovery time in this cycle is 2-5 minutes. Exercising example; Sprinting/ Heavy or Olympic Lifting

Glycolytic system This system is a non-oxidative which uses anaerobic workouts. Uses type 2A muscle fibers. The main fuel source is glucose which is the only carbohydrate nutrient that used to yield energy without the use of oxygen. This system uses a total of 10 chemical reactions to create energy from sugar but can use other forms of energy like lipids/fats even those the process can take up to 32 chemical reactions. Glucose or glycogen is created into ATP through glycolysis. After this process is done lactate and hydrogen are released this cause the muscle to fatigue and to be more acidic. Work is approximately done within 90 seconds, and you should usually rest from 30-90 seconds. You can do strength and interval training as well for hypertrophy.

Oxidative System

Main use of energy is oxygen. Oxidative metabolism is when you break down nutrients like fats, proteins, and carbohydrates. This process happens in the mitochondria. More than 38 chemical reactions are needed to create ATP in this cycle. After 3 minutes of constantly working out this system is active and is also fatigue resistant. This system uses type 1 muscle fibers. Marathon and Bicyclist use this the most.

Musculoskeletal Anatomy


  • Bones are comprised of mostly calcium (37%), collagen (33%), phosphate (17%), and other components like carbonate, potassium, magnesium, and sodium which comprise the last 13%.
  • The anatomy of the bone has many components to it, as we look at the femur, the bone is broken into three segments the distal epiphysis, which is connected to hip, diaphysis where all the nerves/arteries/veins/yellow bone marrow are located. proximal epiphysis is where the femur connects to the tibia. All these nerves and arteries etc., are protected by many sections of the bone which are called: Medullary cavity, spongy bone, epiphyseal line, compact bone, and periosteum.
  • The skeletal system his composed of two sections the axials skeleton which contains the skull, vertebrae, and rib cage. The axial skeleton protects all major organs.
  • The appendicular skeletal system is composed of all the limbs and is responsible for everyday movement and locomotion.

Joint classification


  1. Fibrous:
  2. Cartilaginous:
  3. Synovial

Post a Comment